In diabetes mellitus, the severity of symptoms depends on the degree of reduction of insulin secretion, duration of the disease and the individual characteristics of the patient.
As a rule, the symptoms of type 1 diabetes are acute, the disease begins suddenly. With type 2 diabetes, the state of health deteriorates gradually, in the initial stage of symptomatology is poor:
- Excessive thirst and frequent urination – classic signs and symptoms of diabetes. With the disease excess sugar (glucose) accumulates in the blood. Your kidneys have to work hard to filter and absorb the excess sugar. If your kidneys fail, the excess sugar is removed from your body in the urine with liquid from tissues. This causes more frequent urination, which can lead to dehydration. You may want to drink more thirst quenching fluid, which again leads to frequent urination.
- Tiredness can be caused by many factors. It can also be caused by dehydration, frequent urination and inability of the body to function properly, because less sugar can be used to produce energy.
- The third symptom of diabetes mellitus is polyphagia. It is also thirst, however, not for water, but for food. A person eats and at the same time feels not satiety, but the filling of the stomach with food, which then quickly enough turns into a new hunger.
- Intensive weight loss. This symptom is mainly characteristic of type I diabetes (insulin-dependent) and it is often the first to enjoy girls. However, their joy passes when they learn the true cause of weight loss. It should be noted that the weight loss passes on the background of increased appetite and abundant nutrition, which can not but be alarming. Quite often, weight loss leads to exhaustion.
- Symptoms of diabetes may sometimes include vision problems.
- Slow healing of wounds or frequent infections.
- Tingling in the hands and legs.
- Red, swollen, sensitive gums.
If no action is taken at the first symptoms of diabetes, over time there are complications associated with malnutrition of tissues – trophic ulcers, vascular disease, changes in sensitivity, reduced vision. A severe complication of diabetes is diabetic coma, which occurs more often in insulin-dependent diabetes without sufficient insulin treatment.
Graduates of severity
A very important rubric in the classification of diabetes is its division by degrees of severity:
- Characterizes the most favorable course of the disease to which any treatment should strive. With this degree of process it is fully compensated, the level of glucose does not exceed 6-7 mmol/l, there is no glucose (secretion of glucose with urine), indicators of glycosylated hemoglobin and proteinuria do not exceed the normal values.
- This stage of the process shows that it is partially compensated. There are signs of complications of diabetes and lesions of typical organs of the target: eyes, kidneys, heart, blood vessels, nerves, lower limbs. Glucose level is slightly increased and is 7-10 mmol/l.
- Such a course of the process indicates its constant progress and the impossibility of drug control. At the same time, the level of glucose fluctuates within the range of 13-14 mmol/l, persistent glucose (secretion of glucose with urine), high proteinuria (presence of protein in urine) are observed, and there are obviously developed manifestations of lesions of target organs in diabetes mellitus. Visual acuity is progressively reduced, severe arterial hypertension persists, and sensitivity decreases with the appearance of severe pain and numbness in the lower extremities.
- This degree characterizes the absolute decompensation of the process and the development of severe complications. At the same time, the level of glycemia increases to critical digits (15-25 and more mmol/l), it is poorly correlated by any means. The development of renal failure, diabetic ulcers and gangrene of the limbs is characteristic. Another criterion of the 4th degree of diabetes is the propensity to develop frequent diabetic comas.
There are also three states of carbohydrate metabolism disorders compensation: compensated, subcompensated and decompensated.