Diabetes is one of the most common endocrine disorders with a steady increase in prevalence (especially in developed countries). It is the result of a modern lifestyle and an increase in the number of external etiological factors, among which obesity is prominent.
The main reasons for the development of diabetes mellitus include:
- Overeating (increased appetite) leading to obesity is one of the main factors for the development of type 2 diabetes. If among persons with normal body weight the frequency of diabetes is 7.8%, then at excess weight by 20% the frequency of diabetes is 25%, and at excess weight by 50% the frequency is 60%.
- Autoimmune diseases (attack of the body’s immune system on its own tissues) – glomerulonephritis, autoimmune thyroiditis, hepatitis, lupus, etc. can also be complicated by diabetes mellitus.
- Hereditary factor. As a rule, diabetes mellitus is several times more common in relatives of diabetics. If both parents are ill with diabetes, the risk of diabetes for their children throughout their life is 100%, if one of the parents is ill – 50%, if a brother or sister has diabetes – 25%.
- Viral infections that destroy the cells of the pancreas that produce insulin. Among the viral infections that can cause diabetes are: rubella, viral mumps, varicella, viral hepatitis, etc.
- A person with a hereditary predisposition to diabetes may never become diabetic throughout his life if he controls himself by leading a healthy lifestyle: proper nutrition, physical activity, observation by a doctor, etc. As a rule, diabetes of the first type is manifested in children and adolescents.
As a result of studies, the doctors concluded that the causes of heredity of diabetes mellitus in 5% depend on the mother’s line, in 10% on the father’s line, and if both parents have diabetes, the probability of transmission of predisposition to diabetes increases up to 70%.
Signs of diabetes in women and men
There is a number of signs of diabetes mellitus, typical for both types 1 and 2 of the disease. These include:
- A feeling of insatiable thirst and frequent urination, which leads to dehydration of the body;
- Also, one of the signs is dry mouth;
- Increased fatigue;
- Yawning, drowsiness;
- Wounds and cuts heal very slowly;
- Nausea, possibly vomiting;
- Frequent breathing (possibly with acetone smell);
- Accelerated heartbeat;
- Itchy genitalia and itchy skin;
- Loss of body weight;
- Increased urinary frequency;
- Vision impairment.
If you have the above symptoms of diabetes, it is necessary to measure the blood sugar level.